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ON THE USE OF DRONES – IS THERE REGULATION FOR THE NEW CRAZE IN TOWN, Alexander Bondzie Impraim Esq.

OBJECTIVE

This article is aimed at drawing the attention of the public and authorities to the regulations regarding the use of drones in Ghana.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Drones come in all shapes and sizes; they can be as large as a Boeing or as small as an insect. There are no boundaries a drone cannot cover. The operation of a drone needs no special airstrip to take off in most cases. It can be transported in different ways, from the trunk of a car to a backpack bag.

The name of this device is oft based on the nomenclation adopted by a country.  It may be referred to as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in countries like China Turkey, and Israel;, as a Drone in countries like France and Belgium, or as Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) in countries like Ghana and New Zealand.

 

 

THE DRONE INDUSTRY IN AFRICA

The drone industry is estimated to be the fastest-growing in aviation with ever-increasing customers and users. It is already being touted as the next big opportunity after e-commerce. Amazon, an online retailer, has said it plans to experiment with drones to deliver packages in the country. Indian e-retailer Jabong once delivered a packet of apparel and shoes using a drone. Francesco’s Pizzeria, a pizza delivery service in Mumbai, shocked locals by delivering a pizza on the roof of a high-rise building in Worli, a locality in South Mumbai.[1]

 

Drone delivery service, Zipline, recently announced $190 million in new financing, bringing the company’s valuation to 1.2 billion dollars.  In the world of commercial drones or any startup that’s a big number, and a big achievement.[2] Boeing is changing the whole drone industry with regards to the delivery component of the multimillion-dollar industry.[3]

By May 10, 2019, the Japan-based Terra Drone Corporation (CEO: Toru Tokushige), one of the world’s largest providers of industrial drone solutions, had extended its commitment to the African region by setting up a new branch, Terra Drone Angola. The decision to establish a permanent presence in Angola became pertinent due to an increase in the demand of drones from  multiple major oil and gas companies in West Africa.[4]

The above-cited industry events indicate how commercial drones are rapidly changing the aviation industry and also becoming a major investment area in business specifically in the area of delivery of goods.

 

 

ARE THERE  ANY REGULATIONS ON DRONES IN GHANA?

Worldwide, there are strict regulations regarding the use of drones within airspace. Drone usage poses a lot of risks to aeroplanes and for that reason, sightings of drones near airports are considered a major security and safety concern.

In Ghana, the GHANA CIVIL AVIATION (REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS DIRECTIVES 2018) CA provides the necessary regulations regarding the operation of drones. The following are some of the relevant sections in the directives which a drone operator should know;

28.10.6 Operations Considerations

(1) Visual Line-of-Sight Operations (VLOS)

  1. a) No RPAS Operator shall operate an RPAS for VLOS operations without maintaining a continuous unobstructed view of the RPA, allowing the remote pilot to monitor the RPA’s flight path concerning other aircraft, persons, obstacles (e.g. vehicles, vessels, structures, terrain), for maintaining separation and avoiding collisions.[5]

28.10.7 Operation in Populous Areas

(1) Except where necessary for take-off and landing, or except with the permission of the Authority, RPAS shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or an open-air assembly of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.[6]

(2) No person shall fly an RPAS within a radius of 30 meters from buildings and vehicles not under the person’s control or group of people without explicit permission from relevant persons or owners.

28.10.15 Accidents and Serious Incidents

The provisions of Ghana Civil Aviation Act, 2004, Act 678, Schedule 1, and Part 13 of the Ghana Civil Aviation Flight Standards Directives shall apply to accidents and incident investigation in respect of RPAS with design and or operational approval by the Authority.[7]

28.10.16 Security Requirements

(2) Remote pilots intending to operate within restricted areas of an aerodrome shall be subjected, at a minimum, to the same background check standards as persons granted unescorted access to security restricted areas of aerodromes.[8]

28.17 Enforcement

Under Act 678 and Act 906, enforcement proceedings shall be taken against all who fail to comply with this Directive.[9]

 

 

PUBLIC CONCERNS REGARDING DRONE USAGE

The current trend of drone misuse especially around major airports in some parts of the world raises many questions as to whether or not, Ghana is adequately prepared to handle situations of drone misuse within her airspace? How secured is Ghana’s airport taking into consideration the recent spike in the licensing of drones especially for the hobbyist who most often than not appears not strictly monitored or regulated?

Beyond the airports, many fly drones at funerals, parties and sometimes during weddings. Drones have even been used to deliver a couple’s rings within the church premises in the course of the wedding ceremony.

This raises the question, “How safe is the public”?

Once during a live television broadcast of a music concert, I, in utter amazement and overwhelming shock watched as  a drone was flown on stage to take pictures of the audience and the musicians performing on the stage. I just couldn’t believe it. I wondered whether the drone pilot was aware of the GCAA safety directives, was the audience aware of of the dangers such an act posed to them?[10] Though illegal and wrong, it’s now a craze to see individuals flying drones low and close to people during events.

 

 

INTERNATIONAL CONCERNS ON DRONES

The recent rogue use of drones at airports and other restricted areas have raised a lot of public and security concerns regarding the liberation of drone usage within airspaces. Below are a few reported stories on rogue drone usage.

Flight operations at Frankfurt airport, Germany’s busiest airport, were suspended for an hour.  Airport spokesmen commented to news outlets that the airport was closed from about 7:20 am – 8:20 am local time after a pilot reported seeing a drone.  German federal police used a helicopter to search for the drone and operator.  Police continue to investigate. [11]

Arno Schuetze in Frankurt, Reuters Reporter

Two Black Hawks of the 82nd Airborn Division were struck by an object reported to be a drone at around 8 pm – and flying at 500 feet, above the legal limit for recreational drone flight.  Some news outlets published pictures of drone parts a broken arm and motor that came from a Phantom 4 that was found on the helicopter.[12] 

Miriam McNabb, Editor-in-Chief, DRONELIFE

 

With collisions, be it head-on or side-on, as the worst-case scenario, it is only logical that major drone manufacturers like DJI focus its efforts on putting in place the necessary software.

The world’s leading drone manufacturer, DJI, in 2017, released a statement about the recently reported drone collision with a passenger jet in Quebec.[13] In what seems to be a response to not only this incident but also a reported finding of parts of a DJI drone on a Blackhawk helicopter in New York after another collision.[14] DJI’s statement emphasized the tools that the company had in place to prevent incidents[15], and indicated a commitment to aide local authorities in the investigations.  According to the Statement,  DJI “stands ready to assist Canadian aviation authorities as they investigate a report that a small passenger plane struck a drone while landing in Quebec City.[16] Drone Mitigation Firm, DroneShield, pointed out that airports would typically “halt all traffic when a drone was “identified”, usually by visual observation in the airspace, costing hundreds of thousands of dollars.” For this reason, DroneShield developed a drone detection system for identification and neutralization purposes such as providing early warning of an incoming drone, to aviation authorities. [17]

The above-reported incidents of rogue drone usage must be taken into consideration by regulators of the aviation industry in Ghana. The costs and danger posed by such incidents far outweighs the mechanism which ought to be implemented to avoid such occurrences.

 

 

KEY  INDUSTRY PLAYERS ON DRONE  SAFETY MEASURES

World renowned drone manufacturer DJI has stated that it shall install AirSense (ADS-B receivers) in New Drones from 2020.[18]  These new drones would not rely on sound or sight, instead they would rely on signals sent by nearby drones, airplanes and helicopters. Air Sense  detects aeroplanes and helicopters from miles away.  The new system displays the locations of airplanes and helicopters on the screen of the pilot’s remote controller.

DJI’s public policy manager, David Hansell, when asked how the needs of their customers is balanced with the risk of a collision, states,

“That’s a challenging question, I’d go back to the newness of the industry. If we’re going to be part of the aviation ecosystem as we are, the considerations that are made for manned aircraft are important. Aircraft builders both manned and unmanned accept the reality that flight is an inherently more risky activity than taking a walk. And so there are established levels of risk that the federal government believe are acceptable for the public…The concerns are the same across regulators: how do we best protect our populations while not stifling an industry or killing a technology? It’s a challenging balancing act for governments, regulators and manufacturers. We will continue to partner with regulators around the world to ensure that our products balance the safety needs against the needs of our customers while not sacrificing either one of those. The statement says that DJI takes safety seriously and “absolutely condemns” dangerous drone operations.”[19]

Prior to the announcement to install air sensors, DJI pioneered many key technological advances to help ensure that drones would safely share the skies with traditional aircraft. These included GPS-based geofencing to help drone pilots steer clear of sensitive areas, automatic return-to-home features for drones that lose connection or have low battery strength, and sense-and-avoid systems to help steer clear of obstacles.[20]

 

To fight the menace of collisions, DroneShield’s Drone Sentinel drone detection system provides early warning of incoming drones, including the location of the drone and the pilot. According to the company, “The system includes passive radiofrequency, as well as radar, acoustic, thermal and optical sensors…Drone Sentinel can be optionally combined with a jammer (in the Drone Sentry product) to neutralise the incoming drone threat, following the detection. Additionally, DroneShield’s Drone Gun is capable of mobile deployment to intercept rogue drones, as a tactical gun-like jammer.” [21]

 

 

HOW  SAFE IS GHANA’S AIRSPACE FROM DRONE ACTIVITIES?

Many countries are investing heavily in the protection of their airports with the increase in the occurrence of rogue drones interrupting with flights at airports. Due to the risk of loss of lives and the costs associated with drone collisions, major airports are expected to adopt a counter-drone system.

In the United Stated of America, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) partnered with the Federal Bureau of Investigation to test a new drone detection system at the John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York. This partnership , per the Mark Gibson, the FAA Advisor on UAS Integration, is to “to address…a growing problem of drones flying in restricted airspace.” Mark  Gibson further stated as follows,

“We face many difficult challenges as we integrate rapidly evolving UAS technology into our complex and highly regulated airspace…”[22]

Commenting on this, Thomas Bosco, Port Authority Aviation Director stated,

“This effort at JFK reflects everyone’s commitment to safety.  We applaud the FBI and FAA for their efforts to detect and track unmanned aerial systems (UAS)…We look forward to supporting continued U.S. Government efforts to identify and deploy countermeasures to neutralize the threat posed by rogue UAS”.[23]

 

 

IMPORTATION OF DRONES AND OTHER RELATED  MATTERS; WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Customs Clearance/Importation

Under GCAD Part 28 Subsection 28.1(17) no person shall import an RPAS without the written approval of the Authority. The procedure to carry out this directive is as follows:[24]

  1. The applicant shall apply using Application Form R28-AF-001. If the purpose of the RPAS is for other than recreational purposes, a Cover Letter on company letterhead shall be attached to the form indicating the purpose of the RPAS. This letter shall be addressed to the Director-General (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation), Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana and signed by an accountable executive.
  2. The applicant shall pay the requisite charges as per the Scheme of Charges.
  3. The Authority shall issue a Clearance Letter to Ghana Customs.
  4. The Authority shall also issue a letter to the applicant on the requirement for the registration of RPAS and certification, where applicable.
  5. The RPAS shall then be registered after clearing customs as per the “Approval Process for Recreational and Private Operations”.
  6. If intended for commercial purposes, the organisation shall first have to be taken through certification as detailed in the “Approval Process for Commercial Operations”. In such a case, the RPAS shall be registered under the recreational category until the completion of the certification process after which its category would be changed to the commercial category.

 

Approval Process for Recreational and Private Operations

By GCAD Part 28 Subsection 28.1(17) no person shall operate an RPAS without the written approval of the Authority. The procedure to carry out this directive for small and light RPAS is as follows:[25]

  1. The applicant shall apply using Application Form R28-AF-003. If the purpose of the RPAS is for private purposes, a Cover Letter on company letterhead shall be attached to the form indicating the purpose of the RPAS. This letter shall be addressed to the Director-General (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation), Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana and signed by an accountable executive.
  2. The assigned GCAA personnel(s) shall inspect the RPAS and subsequently register it after successful inspection using Checklist R28-CL-001. Note that the registration number shall be preceded by 9GR, followed by a hyphen, a number and three (3) alphabetical characters (E.g. 9GR-1AAA).
  3. The registration number is generated sequentially but an applicant may request a special registration number. This special number will still retain the format of registration numbers as indicated above.
  4. The applicant shall pay the requisite charges as per the Scheme of Charges.
  5. A Letter of Approval shall be issued by the Authority. The Approval shall be printed on the GCAA Security Sheet.
  6. The approval is valid for one year from the date of issue unless otherwise revoked, suspended or amended

 

Approval Process for Commercial Operations

By GCAD Part 28 Subsection 28.1(8), no person shall operate an RPAS for commercial purposes unless the person holds an RPAS Operating Certificate (ROC) issued by the Authority. The procedure to carry out this directive is as follows:[26]

  1. The applicant may download the documents in the folder “RPAS Guidance for Commercial Operations”.
  2. The applicant may complete the included RPAS POPS Form and submit together with a Cover Letter on company letterhead, signed by an Accountable Executive to the Director-General, (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation) Ghana Civil Aviation, KIA, Accra, Ghana
  3. The applicant shall be taken through the applicable certification process as per certification Checklist R28-CL-002.
  4. The applicant shall pay the requisite certification charges.
  5. At the end of the certification, the applicant may be issued or denied the RPAS Operating Certificate.
  6. The approval is valid for one year from the date of issue unless otherwise revoked, suspended or amended.
  7. The applicant is required to submit the RPAS POPS Form, at least, sixty (60) days before the intended start of operations.

 

Procedure for Pilot and Pilot Instructor Licensing

By GCAD Part 28 Subsections 28.9(2) and 28.9(3), pilots for commercial RPAS operations, pilots of large RPAS and pilots of RPAS with type certificate shall be required to obtain a Remote Pilot Licence. Also, as per GCAD Part 28 Subsection 28.9(11) no person shall act as an RPAS instructor unless authorized by the Authority. See the following for the procedure to satisfy the above:[27]

  1. The applicant shall apply to the Director-General, Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana using Application Form R28-AF-008. If the purpose of the license is for other than recreational purposes, a Cover Letter on company letterhead shall be attached to the form introducing the applicant for the license. This letter shall be addressed to the Director-General (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation), Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana and signed by an accountable executive.
  2. The applicant shall be taken through the application approval process as per Checklist R28-CL-005.
  3. Applicable charges shall be paid by the applicant as per the Scheme of Charges.
  4. At the end of the approval process, the applicant may be issued or denied the RPAS Pilot or RPAS Pilot Instructor License as applicable.
  5. The approval is valid for as per the relevant conditions stated in GCAD Part 28 unless otherwise revoked, suspended or amended.
  6. The License shall be printed on GCAA security sheets.

 

Procedure for Approval for Sale of RPAS

By GCAD Part 28 Subsections 28.1(17) no person shall sell an RPAS without the written approval of the Authority. The procedure to grant this authorization is as follows:[28]

  1. The applicant shall apply using Form R28-AF-011.
  2. A Cover Letter on company letterhead shall be attached to the form introducing the company and stating the inventory of each RPAS type. This letter shall be addressed to the Director-General (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation), Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana and signed by an accountable executive.
  3. Inspection of at least one of the RPAS type shall be conducted before approval or permit is granted.
  4. The applicant shall be briefed by GCAA on the procedure for sale of RPAS:
  5. Get a copy of the buyer’s valid government-issued photo I.D.;
  6. Get the contact details of the buyer
  7. Attach a flier to each RPAS sold;
  8. Direct the buyer to GCAA for registration of the RPAS; and
  9. Submit to the GCAA quarterly, the list of buyers within the elapsed month together with the details collected in “a” and “b” above.
  10. Applicable charges shall be paid by the applicant as per the Scheme of Charges.
  11. A Certificate of Approval shall be issued by the Authority.
  12. A Specifications page will be attached to the Certificate of Approval detailing the RPAS allowed to be sold by the applicant.
  13. The approval is valid for one year from the date of issue unless otherwise revoked, suspended or amended.
  14. If during the year, the applicant increases inventory or wishes to add another RPAS type, the applicant shall make this known to GCAA.

 

Procedure for Change of Ownership of an RPAS

By GCAD Part 28 Subsection 28.6(1), all RPAS need to be registered. A situation may arise where the ownership of the RPAS needs to be changed. In such a case, the following procedure is to be applied:[29]

  1. The applicant shall apply using Form R28-AF-012. If the new purpose of the RPAS is for other than recreational purposes, a Cover Letter on company letterhead shall be attached to the form indicating the purpose of the RPAS. This letter shall be addressed to the Director-General (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation), Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana and signed by an accountable executive
  2. GCAA shall effect the change in its database.
  3. The applicant shall pay the applicable charges as per the Scheme of Charges.
  4. If intended for commercial purposes, the organization shall first have to be taken through certification as detailed in the “Approval Process for Commercial Operations”. In such a case, the RPAS shall be registered under the recreational category until the completion of the certification process after which its category would be changed to the commercial category.
  5. The applicant may choose to retain the old registration or request for a new special registration number. Note that the registration number shall be preceded by 9GR, followed by a hyphen, a number and three (3) alphabetical characters (E.g. 9GR-1AAA).
  6. The special number will still retain the format of registration numbers as indicated above.
  7. The approval is valid for one year from the date of issue unless otherwise revoked, suspended or amended.

 

RPAS Associations/Clubs

Under GCAD Part 28 Subsections 28.1(23) all RPAS associations, clubs and the like shall notify in writing of their existence to the GCAA within three (3) months of its formation. The procedure for this is as follows:[30]

  1. The club shall inform the GCAA via a letter. This letter shall be addressed to the Director-General (Attention: Director, Safety Regulation), Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, KIA, Accra, Ghana and signed by an accountable executive.
  2. GCAA would require certain information from the applicant as described in the Response Sample Letter R28-SL-012.
  3. The applicant should then respond to the Authority’s request.
  4. The GCAA shall acknowledge receipt.

 

 

MEASURES TO CURB DRONE MISUSE

Flying drones at social gatherings close and low to people present, is not only a nuisance but against the GCAA safety directives as well, and must be seriously addressed by the GCAA. Casualties need not happen before measures are taken as is typical among regulators in this country.

The use of drones is a fun activity, however, with the fast pace in technological advancement, it is about time that Ghana develops a national drone policy. There must be intensive education of the populace on the operation of drones. Ghana must take advantage of this fast-growing multi-billion industry to increase the investment drive of her economy.

 

The Role of Government in Curtailing Drone Misuse

One approach to resolve the misuse of drones in Ghana, is the enforcement of the  GCAA safety directives which was issued in 2018. The lack of law enforcement in Ghana has been and indeed continues to be  the major reason why individuals arrogantly and confidently flout the laws, regulations and rules in place.

Under the safety directives issued by the GCAA, an RPAS shall be operated in such a manner as to minimize hazards to persons, property or other aircraft and following the conditions specified in the Directive.[31]

  • 1.1.7 No person shall control more than one RPAS with an RPS at any given time unless otherwise authorised by the Authority.
  • 1.1.8 No person shall operate an RPAS for commercial purposes unless the person holds an RPAS Operating Certificate (ROC) issued by the Authority.
  • 1.1.9 No person shall organise or hold training for any aspect of RPAS operations unless that person holds an RTOC issued by the Authority
  • 1.1.5 An RPAS shall be operated in such a manner as to minimize hazards to persons, property or other aircraft and following the conditions specified in this Directive.
  • 1.1.11 Operators of RPAS are forbidden from flying in restricted, prohibited, danger areas and Special Use Areas (SUA) as published in the Ghana Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), without prior authorisation from the Authority and any other relevant governmental agencies.
  • 1.1.12 No person shall fly an RPAS above Four Hundred feet (400 ft) AGL without prior notification and approval by the Authority.
  • 1.1.13 All private and recreational RPAS operations shall be limited to VLOS operations unless otherwise permitted by the Authority.
  • 1.1.14 No private or recreational RPAS Operator shall operate above 400 feet AGL or BVLOS without compliance with commercial RPAS requirements as specified by the Authority.
  • 1.1.15 No RPAS shall be operated within a 10-kilometre radius from an airport or helipad having operational control with published Instrument Flight Procedure, or a 5-kilometre radius from an airport or helipad without a published Instrument Flight Procedure unless approved by the Authority.
  • 1.1.16 No RPAS shall be operated at night without prior authorisation by the Authority.
  • 1.1.17 No person shall import, export, sell or operate an RPAS or parts thereof without the prior written approval of the Authority.
  • 1.1.18 No person shall design or manufacture an RPAS or parts thereof without the prior written approval of the Authority.
  • 1.1.19 All RPAS Operators shall comply with the applicable noise control, emissions and privacy regulation accordance with the manufacturer’s maintenance requirements.

 

Below are additional recommendations regarding what the government could do to curtail the misuse of drones;

  • The Government must reinforce the importance of compliance and increase the deterrent effect, to encourage current non-compliant and/or reckless drone users to comply with the law.

 

  • The powers available to the police must be increased, to give the police power to prosecute offenders when non-compliance is identified. These proposed  powers  of the police would include,
  1. Ensuring that drone operators are duly registered and that the remote pilot of the drone has met the required competency requirements;
  2. Checking compliance with other legal requirements related to drone use such as pilot license, insurance of the drone etc.

 

  • Obtaining information such as the names and addresses of the registered drone operator and/or remote pilot believed to be in charge of the drone in specified circumstances. For instance, in situations where there is a reasonable suspicion of the commission of an offence;
  1. Entering and/or searching premises, with a warrant, where there is reasonable suspicion that there is a drone and/or its associated components, which an officer reasonably suspects has been used in the commission of an offence;
  2. Seizing and retaining drones and/or its associated components which an officer reasonably believes has been used in the commission of an offence on entering and/or searching premises;
  3. Access to information stored electronically on a seized drone and/or its associated components which a police officer reasonably suspects has been used in the commission of a crime.

 

 

CONCLUSION

Legal advice around drone issues requires counsel that is experienced at addressing the wide and high regulated range of issues that pertains to the aviation industry and more specifically drones.

The drone industry practice requires lawyers advising their clients to possess and provide a mix of legal, policy and business guidance to clients operating in the new and challenging drone industry.

 

The high rate of investments into the drone industry should be taken advantage of by the aviation stakeholders and the government in particular. Drones may be used in the operations of industries, particulary, in industries in the agricultural sector, and which usage would result in massive economic development. Courier service and delivery companies can also take advantage of the use of drones to cut down business costs. The current use of drones by photographers and other events organisers is a clear indication of the impact of drones in the economy.

I am of the opinion that the authorities should take a cue from other developing countries regarding the current pace of rogue drone use.Regulators should begin to check drone pilots in the use of drones in populous places and the low flight of drones.

It is time for a National policy on drones to regulate the industry.

 

 

FOOTNOTES

**The author is a lawyer at  Robert Smith Law Group, a vibrant and dynamic law firm located in the Octagon building within the Business District of Accra.  He  researches into drones and its impact on national security.

 

Photo credit: Unsplash, George Kroeker

 

[1]  https://dronelife.com/2014/11/10/indias-drone-boom-next-big-opportunity-e-commerce/

[2] https://dronelife.com/2019/05/21/how-zipline-became-a-1-2-billion-drone-company/

[3] https://dronelife.com/2019/05/13/boeings-experimental-cargo-drone-can-carry-500-pounds-enters-next-phase-of-testing/

[4] https://dronelife.com/2019/05/14/terra-drone-continues-expansion-in-angola-responds-to-high-demand-from-oil-and-gas-industry/

[5] GCAA SAFETY DIRECTIVES 2018. With VLOS operations, the Pilot must have the drone within his/her line of sight at all times.

[6] GCAA SAFETY DIRECTIVES 2018

[7] GCAA SAFETY DIRECTIVES 2018

[8] GCAA SAFETY DIRECTIVES 2018

[9] GCAA SAFETY DIRECTIVES 2018

[10] Refer to Part 28.10.7 Operation in Populous Areas (supra).

[11] https://dronelife.com/2019/05/09/drone-sighting-shuts-down-another-airport-this-time-its-frankfurt/

[12] https://dronelife.com/2017/09/27/drone-mitigation-firms-quick-to-capitalize-on-reported-collision/

[13] https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/garneau-airport-drone-quebec-1.4355792

[14] https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2017-09-25/army-confirms-black-hawk-drone-collided-over-new-york-city

[15] “DJI has pioneered many key technological advances to help ensure that drones can safely share the skies with traditional aircraft, including GPS-based geofencing to help drone pilots steer clear of sensitive areas, automatic return-to-home features for drones that lose connection or have low battery strength, and sense-and-avoid systems to help steer clear of obstacles”
Ibid at Fn. 13

[16] https://dronelife.com/2017/10/17/dji-comments-drone-collision-quebec/

[17] https://dronelife.com/2017/09/27/drone-mitigation-firms-quick-to-capitalize-on-reported-collision

[18] https://dronelife.com/2019/05/22/dji-to-install-airsense-ads-b-receivers-drones-from-2020/

[19] .  https://dronelife.com/2019/05/22/dji-to-install-airsense-ads-b-receivers-drones-from-2020/

[20] https://dronelife.com/2017/10/17/dji-comments-drone-collision-quebec/

[21] https://dronelife.com/2017/09/27/drone-mitigation-firms-quick-to-capitalize-on-reported-collision/

[22] https://dronelife.com/2016/05/18/faa-tests-fbi-drone-detection-system/

[23] https://dronelife.com/2016/05/18/faa-tests-fbi-drone-detection-system/.

[24] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[25] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[26] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[27] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[28] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[29] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[30] http://www.gcaa.com.gh/web/?p=790#RPAS1

[31] GHANA CIVIL AVIATION (SAFETY) DIRECTIVES, 2016

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